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June 2010 Meeting

Responses to the assignment for Task Force Consideration:

Pre-Meeting Reading Assignment

Bottomley A, Quinten C, Coens C, Martinelli F, Mauer M, Maringwa J, Cleeland CS, Flechtner H, Gotay C, Greimel E, King M, Osoba D, Taphoorn MJ, Reeve BB, Ringash J, Schmucker-Von Koch J, Weis J. Making better use of existing cancer data: Patient Reported Outcomes and Behavioural Evidence: a new international initiative. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2009 Mar;18(2):105-7.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: None.

Brant JM, Beck S, Miaskowski C. Building dynamic models and theories to advance the science of symptom management research. J Adv Nurs. 2010 Jan;66(1):228-40.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: AIM: This paper is a description, comparison, and critique of two models and two theories used to guide symptom management research, and a proposal of directions for new theory or model development. BACKGROUND: Symptom management research has undergone a paradigmatic shift to include symptom clusters, longitudinal studies that examine symptom trajectories, and the effects of interventions on patient outcomes. Models and theories are used to guide descriptive and intervention research. Over the past 15 years, four conceptual models or theories (i.e. Theory of Symptom Management, the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms, the Symptoms Experience Model and the Symptoms Experience in Time Model) were used in a variety of symptom management studies. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches were performed in Medline and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature between 1990 and 2008 for models and theories that guide symptom management research. Related papers and book chapters were used as supporting documentation. DISCUSSION: Comparison and critique of the models and theories revealed important gaps including lack of consideration of symptom clusters, failure to incorporate temporal aspects of the symptom experience and failure to incorporate the impact of interventions on patient outcomes. CONCLUSION: New models and theories should incorporate current trends in symptom management research, capture the dynamic nature of symptoms and incorporate concepts that will facilitate transdisciplinary research in symptom management. Researchers and clinicians need to build more expansive and dynamic symptom management models and theories that parallel advances in symptom research and practice.

Bruner DW. Outcomes research in cancer symptom management trials: the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) conceptual model. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2007;(37):12-5.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Health Services Research and Outcomes (HSRO) Committee aims to guide the study of the interactions among clinical, humanistic, and economic variables that optimize patient outcomes on clinical trials. To guide this work, the RTOG Outcomes Model was developed. Within this framework, measurement focuses primarily on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In the examples presented, these outcomes have served to better quantify the benefit of one therapy over alternative therapies, as in the example of multimodality therapy for lung cancer, and to add evidence to clinical outcomes when clinical outcomes alone have not been strong enough to change clinical practice, as in the example of palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastasis. The unique contribution to the RTOG of the HSRO Committee is the selection and use of PRO measures that give "voice" to the patient in clinical trials as well as provide data to better manage symptoms.

Bruner DW, Bryan CJ, Aaronson N, Blackmore CC, Brundage M, Cella D, Ganz PA, Gotay C, Hinds PS, Kornblith AB, Movsas B, Sloan J, Wenzel L, Whalen G; National Cancer Institute. Issues and challenges with integrating patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials supported by the National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials networks. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 10;25(32):5051-7.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The objective of this report is to provide a historical overview of and the issues and challenges inherent in the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into multinational cancer clinical trials in the cancer cooperative groups. METHODS: An online survey of 12 cancer cooperative groups from the United States, Canada, and Europe was conducted between June and August of 2006. Each of the cooperative groups designated one respondent, who was a member of one of the PRO committees within the cooperative group. RESULTS: There was a 100% response rate, and all of the cancer clinical trial cooperative groups reported conducting PRO research. PRO research has been conducted in the cancer cooperative groups for an average of 15 years (range, 6 to 30 years), and all groups had multidisciplinary committees focused on the design of PRO end points and the choice of appropriate PRO measures for cancer clinical trials. The cooperative groups reported that 5% to 50% of cancer treatment trials and an estimated 50% to 75% of cancer control trials contained PRO primary and secondary end points. There was considerable heterogeneity among the cooperative groups with respect to the formal and informal policies and procedures or cooperative group culture towards PROs, investigator training/mentorship, and resource availability for the measurement and conduct of PRO research within the individual cooperatives. CONCLUSION: The challenges faced by the cooperative groups to the incorporation of PROs into cancer clinical trials are varied. Some common opportunities for improvement include the adoption of standardized training/mentorship mechanisms for investigators for the conduct of PRO assessments and data collection and the development of minimal criteria for PRO measure acceptability. A positive cultural shift has occurred in most of the cooperative groups related to the incorporation of PROs in clinical trials; however, financial and other resource barriers remain and need to be addressed.

Castellano D, del Muro XG, Pérez-Gracia JL, González-Larriba JL, Abrio MV, Ruiz MA, Pardo A, Guzmán C, Cerezo SD, Grande E. Patient-reported outcomes in a phase III, randomized study of sunitinib versus interferon-{alpha} as first-line systemic therapy for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in a European population. Ann Oncol. 2009 Nov;20(11):1803-12.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of sunitinib versus interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 304 mRCC patients (European cohort) were randomized 1 : 1 to receive sunitinib (50 mg/day for 4 weeks, followed by 2 weeks off) or IFN-alpha (9 million units s.c. injection three times/week). The following questionnaires were completed (days 1 and 28 per cycle): Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), the FACT-Kidney Symptom Index and the EuroQol Group's EQ-5D self-report questionnaire (EQ-5D). Results correspond to an ongoing trial with progression-free survival time as primary end point, and patients were still being followed up. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed effects models (MEMs) that allow the inclusion of initial differences and uncompleted repeated measures, with the assumption of data missing at random. Six-cycle results were included. RESULTS: Results consistently showed that patients in sunitinib group experienced statistically significantly milder kidney-related symptoms, better cancer-specific HRQoL and general health status (in social utility scores) during the study period as measured by these patient-reported outcome end points. No statistical differences between groups were found on the FACT-G physical well-being subscale or the EQ-5D VAS values. CONCLUSIONS: Results from MEM showed the sunitinib's benefit on HRQoL compared with IFN-alpha.

Corn BW, Moughan J, Knisely JP, Fox SW, Chakravarti A, Yung WK, Curran WJ Jr, Robins HI, Brachman DG, Henderson RH, Mehta MP, Movsas B. Prospective evaluation of quality of life and neurocognitive effects in patients with multiple brain metastases receiving whole-brain radiotherapy with or without thalidomide on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trial 0118. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 May 1;71(1):71-8.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0118 randomized patients with multiple brain metastases to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) +/- thalidomide. This secondary analysis of 156 patients examined neurocognitive and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Quality of life was determined with the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI). The Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) assessed neurocognitive function. SQLI and MMSE were administered at baseline and at 2-month intervals. MMSE was scored with a threshold value associated with neurocognitive functioning (absolute cutoff level of 23) and with the use of corrections for age and educational level. RESULTS: Baseline SQLI predicted survival. Patients with SQLI of 7-10 vs. <7 had median survival time (MST) of 4.8 vs. 3.1 months, p = 0.05. Both arms showed steady neurocognitive declines, but SQLI scores remained stable. Higher levels of neurocognitive decline were observed with age and education-level corrections. Of patients considered baseline age/educational level neurocognitive failures, 32% died of intracranial progression. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life and neuropsychological testing can be prospectively administered on a Phase III cooperative group trial. The MMSE should be evaluated with adjustments for age and educational level. Baseline SQLI is predictive of survival. Despite neurocognitive declines, QOL remained stable during treatment and follow-up. Poor neurocognitive function may predict clinical deterioration. Lack of an untreated control arm makes it difficult to determine the contribution of the respective interventions (i.e., WBRT, thalidomide) to neurocognitive decline. The RTOG has developed a trial to study the role of preventative strategies aimed at forestalling neurocognitive decline in this population.

Dubois D, Dhawan R, van de Velde H, Esseltine D, Gupta S, Viala M, de la Loge C. Descriptive and prognostic value of patient-reported outcomes: the bortezomib experience in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Feb 20;24(6):976-82.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Bortezomib, a boronic acid dipeptide, has been recently introduced as a new approach to treating multiple myeloma (MM). The goal of this work was to evaluate the added value of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in the interpretation of bortezomib clinical trial outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred two patients with relapsed, refractory MM were treated with bortezomib as part of the SUMMIT (Study of Uncontrolled Multiple Myeloma Managed with Proteasome Inhibition Therapy) study. Patients were administered the following four PRO measures at several time points: the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and the myeloma-specific module (QLQ-MY24), the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) Fatigue scale, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Neurotoxicity (Ntx) scale. Minimal important difference (MID) thresholds were used to define patients as improved, stable, or worsened. A survival analysis was conducted to assess the predictive power of PRO data. RESULTS: For the total population, there was a positive change between baseline and best end point. Consistent with the clinical responses, change in PRO scores showed statistically significant differences between response groups with PRO improvement in patients with complete response (CR) or partial response (PR), mostly stable scores in patients with minor response or no change, and deterioration in most scores for patients with progressive disease. Change in scores for neuropathy-related symptoms was reasonably stable. In contrast, fatigue scores significantly improved for patients with CR or PR. When various MID thresholds were applied, the proportion of improved patients exceeded 35% for several domains within all change group definitions. Moreover, survival analysis results demonstrated the additional prognostic information PRO data can provide to supplement clinical data. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the complementary value for PRO assessments in further interpreting clinical response, the impact of adverse effects, and patient prognosis in clinical trials.

Eton DT, Shevrin DH, Beaumont J, Victorson D, Cella D. Constructing a Conceptual Framework of Patient-Reported Outcomes for Metastatic Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer. Value Health. 2010 Mar 10. [Epub ahead of print].   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: Objective: A conceptual framework for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is a structured representation of outcome concepts and issues. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework of PROs for hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) to support measurement clarity. Methods: Relevant outcome issues were identified from review of recent clinical trials. This provided content for an interview with 15 metastatic HRPC patients and a survey of 10 practitioners. All participants were asked about the relevance and importance of 26 outcomes and were allowed to nominate new outcomes. Practitioners were also asked to determine which outcomes endorsed by patients were attributable to the disease (symptoms) versus treatment (side effects). Analyses of archived clinical trial data were used to verify and augment the interview and survey results. Results: Patients endorsed 11 concerns as relevant and important to HRPC including general pain, bone pain, urinary problems, fatigue, appetite loss, constipation, erectile dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, diarrhea, PSA anxiety, and changes in self image. Practitioner judgments helped classify each concern into one of four categories, disease symptom, treatment side effect, both symptom and side effect, or psychological concern. Additionally, patients endorsed (and practitioners confirmed) the relevance and importance of several general domains of quality of life. Analyses of archived data confirmed the importance of these issues and suggested two additional concerns. Conclusion: Findings were used to propose a conceptual framework of PROs for metastatic HRPC. Such frameworks can be used to help specify targets for assessment in clinical studies such as treatment trials.

Ganz PA, Gotay CC. Use of patient-reported outcomes in phase III cancer treatment trials: lessons learned and future directions. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 10;25(32):5063-9.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This article examines the challenges, opportunities, and successes that have occurred in the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in phase III cancer clinical trials. METHODS: An informal survey of the leadership of US cooperative group PRO investigators identified diverse trials in which PROs had been measured. Exemplary trials were selected for lessons learned and for examination of successful strategies. RESULTS: We review four challenging trials in depth, illustrating some of the difficulties in integrating PROs within treatment trials, including issues related to missing data, lack of procedures for monitoring patients and ensuring collection of PRO data, and missed opportunities in publication of treatment and PRO outcomes together. Four examples of successful trials are highlighted. CONCLUSION: As a result of this review, the authors make specific recommendations related to the use of PROs in phase III trials, focusing on issues related to design, choice of PRO instrument and frequency of administration, analysis, and publication strategies.

Garcia SF, Cella D, Clauser SB, Flynn KE, Lad T, Lai JS, Reeve BB, Smith AW, Stone AA, Weinfurt K. Standardizing patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer clinical trials: a patient-reported outcomes measurement information system initiative. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 10;25(32):5106-12.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as symptom scales or more broad-based health-related quality-of-life measures, play an important role in oncology clinical trials. They frequently are used to help evaluate cancer treatments, as well as for supportive and palliative oncology care. To be most beneficial, these PROs must be relevant to patients and clinicians, valid, and easily understood and interpreted. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Network, part of the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Initiative, aims to improve appreciably how PROs are selected and assessed in clinical research, including clinical trials. PROMIS is establishing a publicly available resource of standardized, accurate, and efficient PRO measures of major self-reported health domains (eg, pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, social function) that are relevant across chronic illnesses including cancer. PROMIS is also developing measures of self-reported health domains specifically targeted to cancer, such as sleep/wake function, sexual function, cognitive function, and the psychosocial impacts of the illness experience (ie, stress response and coping; shifts in self-concept, social interactions, and spirituality). We outline the qualitative and quantitative methods by which PROMIS measures are being developed and adapted for use in clinical oncology research. At the core of this activity is the formation and application of item banks using item response theory modeling. We also present our work in the fatigue domain, including a short-form measure, as a sample of PROMIS methodology and work to date. Plans for future validation and application of PROMIS measures are discussed.

Gotay C. Patient symptoms and clinician toxicity ratings: both have a role in cancer care. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 Dec 2;101(23):1602-3.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: None.

Gotay CC, Kawamoto CT, Bottomley A, Efficace F. The prognostic significance of patient-reported outcomes in cancer clinical trials. J Clin Oncol 2008 Mar 10;26(8):1355-63.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), routinely collected as a part of cancer clinical trials, have been linked with survival in numerous clinical studies, but a comprehensive critical review has not been reported. This study systematically assessed the impact of PROs on patient survival after a cancer diagnosis within the context of clinical trials. DESIGN: Cancer clinical trials that assessed baseline PROs and mortality were identified through MEDLINE (through December 2006) supplemented by the Cochrane database, American Society of Clinical Oncology/European Society for Medical Oncology abstracts and hand searches. Inclusion criteria were publication in English language and use of multivariate analyses of PROs that controlled for one or more clinical factors. Two raters reviewed each study, abstracted data, and assessed study quality; two additional raters verified abstractions. RESULTS: In 36 of 39 studies (N = 13,874), at least one PRO was significantly associated with survival (P < .05) in multivariate analysis, with varying effect sizes. Studies of lung (n = 12) and breast cancer (n = 8) were most prevalent. The most commonly assessed PRO was quality of life, measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 in 56% of studies. Clinical variables adjusted for included performance status (PS), treatment arm, stage, weight loss, and serum markers. Results indicated that PROs provide distinct prognostic information beyond standard clinical measures in cancer clinical trials. CONCLUSION: PROs might be considered for stratification purposes in future trials, as they were often better predictors of survival than PS. Studies are needed to determine whether interventions that improve PROs also increase survival and to identify explanatory mechanisms through which PROs relate to survival.

Lee SJ, Richardson PG, Sonneveld P, Schuster MW, Irwin D, San Miguel JF, Crawford B, Massaro J, Dhawan R, Gupta S, Anderson KC. Bortezomib is associated with better health-related quality of life than high-dose dexamethasone in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma: results from the APEX study. Br J Haematol. 2008 Nov;143(4):511-9.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was prospectively measured during the phase III APEX trial of bortezomib versus dexamethasone in relapsed multiple myeloma patients. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core (QLQ-C30) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy/Gynecologic Oncology Group-Neurotoxicity (NTX) side-effects questionnaires were administered at baseline and every 6 weeks up to 42 weeks. Patients receiving bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2), days 1, 4, 8 and 11 for eight 3-week cycles, then days 1, 8, 15 and 22 for three 5-week cycles; n = 296) demonstrated significantly better mean Global Health Status over the study versus patients receiving dexamethasone (40 mg/d, days 1-4, 9-12, and 17-20 for four 5-week cycles, then days 1-4 only for five 4-week cycles; n = 302), plus significantly better physical health, role, cognitive, and emotional functioning scores, lower dyspnoea and sleep symptom scores, and better NTX questionnaire score, using multiple imputation to account for missing data. Results were similar using available-data analyses. Sensitivity analyses suggested that improved HRQL with bortezomib is at least partially explained by improved survival. These results show that bortezomib was associated with significantly better multidimensional HRQL compared with dexamethasone, consistent with the better clinical outcomes seen with bortezomib.

Lipscomb J, Reeve BB, Clauser SB, Abrams JS, Bruner DW, Burke LB, Denicoff AM, Ganz PA, Gondek K, Minasian LM, O'Mara AM, Revicki DA, Rock EP, Rowland JH, Sgambati M, Trimble EL. Patient-reported outcomes assessment in cancer trials: taking stock, moving forward. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 10;25(32):5133-40.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: To evaluate and improve the use of cancer trial end points that reflect the patient's own perspective, the National Cancer Institute organized an international conference, Patient-Reported Outcomes Assessment in Cancer Trials (PROACT), in 2006. The 13 preceding articles in this special issue of the Journal were commissioned in preparation for or in response to the PROACT conference, which was cosponsored by the American Cancer Society. Drawing from these articles and also commentary from the conference itself, this concluding report takes stock of what has been learned to date about the successes and challenges in patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in phase III, phase II, and symptom management trials in cancer and identifies ways to improve the scientific soundness, feasibility, and policy relevance of PROs in trials. Building on this synthesis of lessons learned, this article discusses specific administrative policies and management procedures to improve PRO data collection, analysis, and dissemination of findings; opportunities afforded by recent methodologic and technologic advances in PRO data collection and analysis to enhance the scientific soundness and cost efficiency of PRO use in trials; and the importance of better understanding the usefulness of PRO data to the full spectrum of cancer decision makers, including patients and families, health providers, public and private payers, regulatory agencies, and standards-setting organizations.

Peeters M, Siena S, Van Cutsem E, Sobrero A, Hendlisz A, Cascinu S, Kalofonos H, Devercelli G, Wolf M, Amado RG. Association of progression-free survival, overall survival, and patient-reported outcomes by skin toxicity and KRAS status in patients receiving panitumumab monotherapy. Cancer. 2009 Apr 1;115(7):1544-54.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The authors explored the association of skin toxicity (ST) severity as measured by patient-reported ST and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grading with efficacy of panitumumab, a fully human antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody, from a phase 3 metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) trial. METHODS: Patients were randomized to panitumumab plus best supportive care (BSC) vs BSC alone. ST by modified National Cancer Institute CTCAE v3.0 and modified Dermatology Life Quality Index (mDLQI), health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and CRC symptoms were measured. ST was analyzed using a landmark approach. Associations by KRAS mutational status were also assessed. RESULTS: Of 463 patients, 208 of 231 (90%) panitumumab patients and 184 of 232 (79%) BSC patients had > or = 1 postbaseline patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment. Panitumumab patients with more severe ST had significantly longer overall survival (OS) (grade 2-4:grade 1; hazard ratio, 0.60; P = .0033). Lower mDLQI scores (< 67; more bothersome ST) were associated with longer OS (Cox model, P < .0001). Similar results were observed with progression-free survival (PFS). An inverse relation between mDLQI and HRQOL scores was observed, suggesting that ST bother correlated with better HRQOL. KRAS and PRO data were available in 363 patients (188 panitumumab; 175 BSC). Longer OS was associated with lower mDLQI scores, regardless of KRAS status. Longer PFS was associated with more severe ST (lower mDLQI scores and higher CTCAE grade ST) in patients with wild-type (WT) KRAS tumors, but not in patients with mutant KRAS tumors. CONCLUSIONS: More severe ST, by both clinical grading and PRO, is associated with better CRC symptoms and HRQOL and with longer OS and PFS among panitumumab-treated patients. The associations for PFS were more pronounced in patients with WT KRAS tumors.

Robinson DW Jr, Eisenberg DF, Cella D, Zhao N, de Boer C, DeWitte M. The prognostic significance of patient-reported outcomes in pancreatic cancer cachexia. J Support Oncol 2008 Jul-Aug;6(6):283-90.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: Data from a clinical study of 86 pancreatic cancer patients with involuntary, significant weight loss (cachexia) were used to explore the relationship between patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and survival. In all, 28 pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia were given gemcitabine (Gemzar) plus 3 mg/kg of infliximab (Remicade), 28 were given gemcitabine plus 5 mg/kg of infliximab, and 30 were given gemcitabine plus placebo in a double-blinded, phase II, multicenter trial. PRO endpoints included scores from the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F), Functional Assessment of Anorexia/ Cachexia Therapy (FAACT), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and the Short-Form 36 general health survey (SF-36). Population mean scores at baseline indicated fatigue problems (FACIT-F), nutritional health issues (FAACT), and mild-to-moderate pain (BPI "worst pain" score). Baseline normalized SF-36 values for physical functioning, vitality, and mental health indicated substantial impairment. Baseline fatigue and physical-functioning scores predicted survival as well as, or better than, baseline Karnofsky Performance Status or hemoglobin level. A cut-point in the FACIT-F score (median < or = 30) strongly predicted mortality; patients with greater fatigue had a lower median overall survival than did those with less fatigue. These findings supported several features of an a priori clinical-benefit model. Patient-reported fatigue provided powerful prognostic information; tracking of this symptom may be useful for treatment planning and medical monitoring of advanced-stage pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia. These results must be confirmed by larger trials.

Rock EP, Kennedy DL, Furness MH, Pierce WF, Pazdur R, Burke LB. Patient-reported outcomes supporting anticancer product approvals. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 10;25(32):5094-9.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: In 2006, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published draft guidance to provide recommendations for development, validation, implementation, and interpretation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures that can support treatment benefit claims in product labeling. Here, we summarize and discuss FDA approvals of anticancer products in the context of the draft guidance. We identified anticancer product approvals having efficacy claim(s) based at least in part on a PRO. In addition, we collated limitations of PRO instruments commonly submitted for regulatory review over the period from October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2006. From 1995 onward, nine indications were approved for seven anticancer products based at least in part on a PRO. In eight of nine approvals, PRO data supplemented other evidence of clinical benefit. In seven approvals, the PRO measured a single symptom or functional domain that was directly attributable to the treatment benefit observed in the disease. The FDA's draft PRO guidance describes principles that have been used in anticancer product approvals for more than a decade. PRO end points typically support treatment benefit claims that refer to a patient's symptoms or ability to function. Single-item PROs may be acceptable. PRO data should be both internally consistent and aligned with other evidence of clinical benefit. The FDA encourages sponsors to consult with the FDA early in the process of PRO development.

Siena S, Peeters M, Van Cutsem E, Humblet Y, Conte P, Bajetta E, Comandini D, Bodoky G, Van Hazel G, Salek T, Wolf M, Devercelli G, Woolley M, Amado RG. Association of progression-free survival with patient-reported outcomes and survival: results from a randomised phase 3 trial of panitumumab. Br J Cancer. 2007 Dec 3;97(11):1469-74.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: In a randomised phase 3 trial, panitumumab significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This analysis characterises the association of PFS with CRC symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and overall survival (OS). CRC symptoms (NCCN/FACT CRC symptom index, FCSI) and HRQoL (EQ-5D) were assessed for 207 panitumumab patients and 184 best supportive care (BSC) patients who had at least one post-baseline patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment. Patients alive at week 8 were included in the PRO and OS analyses and categorised by their week 8 progression status as follows: no progressive disease (no PD; best response of at least stable disease) vs progressive disease (PD). Standard imputation methods were used to assign missing values. Significantly more patients were progression free at weeks 8-24 with panitumumab vs BSC. After excluding responders, a significant difference in PFS remained favouring panitumumab (HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.52-0.77; P<0.0001). At week 8, lack of disease progression was associated with significantly and clinically meaningful lower CRC symptomatology for both treatment groups and higher HRQoL for panitumumab patients only. Overall survival favoured no PD patients vs PD patients alive at week 8. Lack of disease progression was associated with better symptom control, HRQoL, and OS.

Sullivan PW, Nelson JB, Mulani PM, Sleep D. Quality of life as a potential predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Qual Life Res. 2006 Oct;15(8):1297-306.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The association between HRQL measures with outcomes in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is unclear. METHODS: Baseline and 12-week HRQL was collected using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Prostate (FACT-P). Outcomes included: (1) survival; (2) time to disease progression and (3) time to bone pain. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. The relative predictive performance of each HRQL instrument and domain was compared. RESULTS: Baseline HRQL scores and 12-week change scores > the median were significant predictors of all clinical outcomes but varied by domain. For example, the hazard of death for a change in FACT-P Grand Total Score > median was 49% of the hazard for a change < or = the median. Including baseline or 12-week change in HRQL resulted in improvement in prediction performance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with better baseline HRQL have better predicted survival, time to disease progression and pain prognosis than those with worse HRQL. In addition, the 12-week change in HRQL appears to improve predictive accuracy for most clinical outcomes. It appears that greater deterioration in HRQL is prognostic for rapid disease progression.

Wang XS, Shi Q, Williams LA, Mao L, Cleeland CS, Komaki RR, Mobley GM, Liao Z. Inflammatory cytokines are associated with the development of symptom burden in patients with NSCLC undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Brain Behav Immun: e-pub ahead of print, 3/2010.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: Elevations in cancer treatment-induced circulating inflammatory cytokines may be partially responsible for the development of significant symptom burden (e.g., pain, fatigue, distress, disturbed sleep) during concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CXRT). Sixty-two patients undergoing CXRT for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) reported symptoms weekly for 15weeks via the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Serum inflammatory cytokines were assessed weekly during therapy via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dynamic changes in cytokines and associated symptom profiles were estimated using mixed-effect models. MDASI symptom severity increased gradually as CXRT dose accumulated and peaked at week 8. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and serum soluble receptor 1 for tumor necrosis factor (sTNF-R1) increased significantly by week 8 (all p<.05). During CXRT, controlled for age, sex, race, body mass index, cancer recurrence, previous treatment status, total radiotherapy dose, and CXRT delivery technique, an increase in sTNF-R1 was significantly related to an increase in the mean score for all 15 MDASI symptoms (estimate, 1.74; SE, 0.69; p<.05) and to a larger radiation dose to normal lung volume (estimate, 1.77; SE, 0.71; p<.01); an increase in serum IL-6 was significantly related to increased mean severity for the five most severe symptoms (pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, lack of appetite, sore throat) (estimate, 0.32; SE, 0.16; p<.05). These results suggest a role for over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines in significant worsening of symptoms in NSCLC patients undergoing CXRT, and warrant further study to identify biological targets for ameliorating treatment-related symptom burden.

Wagner LI, Wenzel L, Shaw E, Cella D. Patient-reported outcomes in phase II cancer clinical trials: lessons learned and future directions. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 10;25(32):5058-62.   [Link to PubMed]

ABSTRACT: With increasing limits on the resources available to conduct cancer clinical trials, the inclusion of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in treatment and symptom management trials must be prioritized. Although it has been suggested on occasion that phase III trials should take precedence over phase II trials, we argue that there is a clear and important role for PRO assessment in phase II trials going forward. To illustrate the value realized from including PROs in phase II trials, we provide case examples from cancer treatment and supportive care. The benefits of including PROs in symptom management intervention research are exemplified using phase II trials targeting cognitive impairment. The inclusion of PROs in phase II cancer clinical trials adds important information about the impact of treatment in health-related quality of life, and advances the science of PRO measurement. These contributions significantly enhance the design of phase III trials, ultimately leading to the efficient utilization of clinical trial resources.